Page 73 - MODES of EXPLANATION

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like entities (facts), and truth consists of language or thought that mirror a pre-categorized
world” (Viale, 2013).
“The very minimum that realism can be held to involve is that statements in a given
class (the so called disputed statements) relate to some reality that exists
independently of our knowledge of it, in such a way that this reality renders each
statement in the class determinately true or false, again independently of whether we
know, or are even able to discover, its truth-value.” (Dummett, 1982)
“Scientific realists hold that scientific theories are about entities that exist
independently of these theories and that these entities include both the observable and
unobservable. Scientific theories in scientific realism are accordingly considered as
being either true or false depending on the nature of these entities and the relations
between them. The realists’ favorite theory of truth is the correspondence theory
which defines the concept of truth in terms of the claims (or propositions) about
reality and the state of affairs (or facts) of which these claims (or propositions) are
about. These views are often accompanied with the axiological prescription that
science should aim at truthful knowledge about the world. Though they value truth,
scientific realists commonly advocate some form of fallibilism which grants that all
scientific knowledge is more or less partial and fallible, since we do not usually have
direct epistemic access to the objects studied in different sciences.” (Kaidesoja, 2013)
Sayer (1992) claims the following:
1.
“The world exists independently of our knowledge of it.
2.
Our knowledge of that world is fallible and theory-laden. …Concepts of truth
and falsity fail to provide a coherent view of the relationship between
knowledge and its object. Nevertheless knowledge is not immune to empirical
check , and its effectiveness in informing and explaining successful material
practice is not mere accident .
3.
Knowledge develops neither wholly continuously, as the steady accumulation
of facts within a stable conceptual framework, nor wholly discontinuously,
through simultaneous and universal changes in concepts.
4.
There is necessity in the world; objects – whether natural or social –
necessarily have particular causal powers or ways of acting and particular
susceptibilities.
5.
The world is differentiated and stratified, consisting not only of events, but
objects, including structures, which have powers and liabilities capable of
generating events. …These structures may be present even where, as in the
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